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Chosen Ciphertext Attacke

Chosen-Ciphertext-Angriff - Wikipedi

Dieser Artikel behandelt den Chosen-Ciphertext-Angriff auf Kryptosysteme. Der Angreifer hat temporär die Möglichkeit, Geheimtexte seiner Wahl zu entschlüsseln. Dies kann durch Zugriff auf ein Hardwaresystem durch einen Einbruch geschehen; es fällt jedoch auch der Zugriff auf unvorhergesehene Nebeneffekte, wie verschiedene Fehlermeldungen nach erfolgreicher bzw. erfolgloser Entschlüsselung darunter. Ein Beispiel dafür ist Bleichenbachers Angriff auf PKCS#1. Bei einigen. Was ist eine Chosen-Ciphertext-Attacke? Eine Chosen-Ciphertext-Attacke (CCA) ist ein Angriffsmodell für die Kryptoanalyse, bei dem der Kryptoanalytiker Informationen sammeln kann, indem er die Entschlüsselungen der ausgewählten Chiffretexte ermittelt: Aus diesen Informationen kann der Gegner versuchen, den für die Entschlüsselung verwendeten verborgenen und geheimen Schlüssel wiederherzustellen Adaptive-Chosen-Ciphertext Attack. The adaptive-chosen-ciphertext attack is a kind of chosen-ciphertext attacks, during which an attacker can make the attacked system decrypt many different ciphertexts. This means that the new ciphertexts are created based on responses (plaintexts) received previously. The attacker can request decrypting of many ciphertexts Ausgewählter Chiffretext-Angriff - Chosen-ciphertext attack. Aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie . Ein CCA ( Attected -Ciphertext Attack ) ist ein Angriffsmodell für die Kryptoanalyse, bei dem der Kryptoanalytiker Informationen sammeln kann, indem er die Entschlüsselungen ausgewählter Chiffretexte erhält. Aus diesen Informationen kann der Gegner versuchen, den verborgenen geheimen.

A chosen-ciphertext attack (CCA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis in which the cryptanalyst gathers information, at least in part, by choosing a ciphertext and obtaining its decryption under an unknown key An adaptive chosen-ciphertext attack (abbreviated as CCA2) is an interactive form of chosen-ciphertext attack in which an attacker first sends a number of ciphertexts to be decrypted chosen adaptively, then uses the results to distinguish a target ciphertext without consulting the oracle on the challenge ciphertext, in an adaptive attack the. Slide 86 of 8

Chosen Ciphertext (selbst gewählter Geheimtext) Der Angreifer hat temporär die Möglichkeit, Geheimtexte seiner Wahl zu entschlüsseln. Dies kann durch Zugriff auf ein Hardwaresystem durch einen Einbruch geschehen; es fallen jedoch auch der Zugriff auf unvorhergesehene Nebeneffekte, wie verschiedene Fehlermeldungen nach erfolgreicher bzw- erfolgloser Entschlüsselung darunter. Ein Beispiel dafür ist Bleichenbachers Angriff au Chosen-Ciphertext-Attacke Kryptographischer Angri , in dem der Angreifer Zugri auf Klar-texte zu von ihm gew ahlten Chi raten erhalten kann. Das Ziel des Angreifers ist es in der Regel, ein gegebenes Chi rat zu dechi rieren, das zu keinem dieser Klar-Geheim-Kompromisse geh ort. Abh angig davon, ob der Angreifer dieses Chi rat vor oder nach dem Ende des Angri es kennt, unterscheidet man. 3 Chosen-Ciphertext Attacks In a chosen-ciphertext attack, the attacker selects the ciphertext, sends it to the victim, and is given in return the corresponding plaintext or some part thereof. A chosen-plaintext attack is called adaptive if the attacker can chose the ciphertexts depending on previous outcomes of the attack

Chosen-Ciphertext-Attacke - Online Marketing Glossar der OS

CryptographyTo get certificate subscribe: https://www.coursera.org/learn/cryptography=====Playlist URL: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?l.. The golden standard of security for encryption schemes against malformed ciphertetxts is security against chosen ciphertext attacks, also called CCA security (see, e.g., [NY90, RS91, DDN91, CS98, Sah99] and more) which requires that semantic security holds even when the adversary gets to ask for decryption queries. CCA security comes in two flavors: the non-adaptive flavor, called CCA1 or lunchtime attack, where the adversary is limited to ask decryption queries before she.

In a chosen ciphertext attack, the attacker can additionally (a chosen ciphertext attack is usually understood to subsume a chosen plaintext attack) choose some ciphertext and is handed the corresponding plaintext. In other words, the attacker may encrypt and decrypt arbitrary messages In an adaptive chosen-ciphertext attack scenario, the attacker's goal is to decrypt a ciphertext C without any knowledge of the (symmetric or asymmetric) decryption key. To this end, he iteratively issues new ciphertexts C', C'',... that are somehow related to the original ciphertext C

Chosen-Ciphertext Attack Cryptography Crypto-I

chosen-ciphertext attacks (CCA), are attacks in which the adversary can make use of oracle access to decryption. For example, a well-known attack due to Bleichenbacher [Ble98] only requires acces know about/extract from the system. Chosen-ciphertext attack is considered to be the strongest attack on a cryp- tosystem. In this attack the adversary is first allowed to probe the decoding mechanism polynomially many times choosing ciphertexts of his choice getting the correspond adaptive-chosen ciphertext attacks on malleable en-cryption schemes [17,18,56], these concerns gained practical salience with the discovery of padding ora-cle attacks on a number of standard encryption pro-tocols [6,7,13,22,30,40,51,52,73]. Despite repeated warnings to industry, variants of these attacks continue to plague modern systems, including TLS 1.2's CBC-mode ciphersuite [5,7,48] and. http://www.theaudiopedia.com What is CHOSEN-CIPHERTEXT ATTACK? What does CHOSEN-CIPHERTEXT ATTACK mean? CHOSEN-CIPHERTEXT ATTACK meaning - CHOSEN.. On Quantum Chosen-Ciphertext Attacks and Learning with Errors. Large-scale quantum computing poses a major threat to classical public-key cryptography. Recently, strong quantum access security models have shown that numerous symmetric-key cryptosystems are also vulnerable. In this paper, we consider classical encryption in a model that.

Ausgewählter Chiffretext-Angriff - Chosen-ciphertext attac

Chosen-ciphertext attacks, like other attacks, may be adaptive or non-adaptive. In an adaptive chosen-ciphertext attack, the attacker can use the results from prior decryptions to inform their choices of which ciphertexts to have decrypted. In a non-adaptive attack, the attacker chooses the ciphertexts to have decrypted without seeing any of the resulting plaintexts. After seeing the. Chosen ciphertext attack on a chaotic stream cipher. Abstract: This paper studies the security of a recently-proposed 3D chaotic self-synchronization stream cipher. According to the chosen-ciphertext attack, a single key decipher algorithm is further investigated. First, multiple pairs of plaintext-ciphertext are obtained by choosing the. How does a chosen ciphertext attack work on textbook RSA? Ask Question Asked 6 years, 10 months ago. Active 4 years, 10 months ago. Viewed 1k times 4. I am very new to cryptography and I am confused with something. Here is the homework question I am having trouble with: Write a program.

Chosen-ciphertext attack - Simple English Wikipedia, the

Recovering CBC-mode IV via Chosen Ciphertext. Sun 12 August 2012 By Taylor Hornby. In security. tags: cryptography. Suppose a system uses a constant internal initialization vector to encrypt/decrypt data in CBC mode, and you'd like to know what it is. If you can make the system decrypt chosen ciphertexts, this is how you do it: Make the system decrypt two equal blocks of ciphertext (e.g. all. indistinguishable against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack (IND-CCA2) secure if and only if the computational gen-eralized RSA intractability assumption holds. It is shown that the proposed public key cryptosystem with double trapdoor decryption mechanism gains some advantages over previous proposals [2-4] with respect to both security and efficiency. Firstly, the previous public key. Simple chosen-plaintext attack on AES-CTR given NONCE and IV re-use for multiple ciphertexts. Basically just a OTP chosen-plaintext attack implementation. - aes_ctr-chosen_plaintext.p

Further, the proposed system is highly secure, and it prevents the chosen-ciphertext attack in type-I adversary and it is indistinguishable against the random oracle model for the type-II adversary. The proposed scheme is highly secure, and the security analysis measures are comparatively stronger than existing techniques. Download Full-text . Traceable Multiauthority Attribute-Based Encrypti A chosen-ciphertext attack (CCA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis in which the cryptanalyst gathers information, at least in part, by choosing a ciphertext and obtaining its decryption under an unknown key. In the attack, an adversary has a chance to enter one or more known ciphertexts into the system and obtain the resulting plaintexts. From these pieces of information the adversary can. chosen ciphertext attack that operates against ciphertexts containing gzip compressed data. We refer to this tech-nique as a gzip format oracle attack, and we believe it may have applications to other encryption protocols. We discuss the details of this attack in §5. We also demonstrate weaknesses in the device reg- istration and key distribution mechanisms of iMessage. One weakness we.

What is Adaptive Chosen-Ciphertext Attack (CCA2)? Definition of Adaptive Chosen-Ciphertext Attack (CCA2): In CCA2, adversary knows the public key (through which she can only encrypt messages of her choice) and has access to decryption oracle even after the challenge ciphertext is given to her, but with the restriction that she cannot query challenge ciphertext to the decryption oracle chosen-ciphertext attacks do indeed represent an important threat and hence must be taken into account in order to maintain con dentiality. We also recommend changes in the OpenPGP standard [3] to reduce the e ectiveness of our attacks in these settings. 1 Introduction Electronic mail (e-mail) has become an essential and ubiquitous communication tool. As such, users and businesses have become. Interactive form of chosen-ciphertext attack in which an attacker first sends a number of ciphertexts to be decrypted chosen adaptively, then uses the results to distinguish a target ciphertext without consulting the oracle on the challenge ciphertext, in an adaptive attack the attacker is further allowed adaptive queries to be asked after the target is revealed (but the target query is. Hellman) secure against chosen ciphertext attacks, given a public-key cryptosystem secure against passive eavesdropping and a non-interactive zero-knowledge proof system in the shared string model. No such secure cryptosystems were known before. Key words. cryptography, randomized algorithms AMS subject classi cations. 68M10, 68Q20, 68Q22, 68R05, 68R10 A preliminary version of this paper. Chosen-ciphertext attack and Adaptive chosen-ciphertext attack · See more » Attack model In cryptanalysis, attack models or attack types are a classification of cryptographic attacks specifying the kind of access a cryptanalyst has to a system under attack when attempting to break an encrypted message (also known as ciphertext) generated by the system

Adaptiver Chiffretext-Angriff - Adaptive chosen-ciphertext attack. Aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie . Ein adaptiver Chiffretext-Angriff (abgekürzt als CCA2 ). chosen-ciphertext attacks were considered in [36, 37, 55], where it is shown that, as in the case of CPA-security, these definitions are equivalent to the indistinguishability-based ones. As we have already mentioned, CCA-security is now the de facto level of security for public-key encryption due to its numerous advantages (some of which were summarized earlier). Unfortunately, only a.

Chosen Ciphertext Attack A chosen-ciphertext attack (CCA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis in which the cryptanalyst gathers information, at least in part, by choosing a ciphertext and obtaining its decryption under an unknown key. In the attack, an adversary has a chance to enter one or more known ciphertexts into the system and obtain the resulting plaintexts. From these pieces of. Adaptive chosen ciphertext also mirrors its plaintext cousin: It begins with a chosen ciphertext attack in round 1. The cryptanalyst then adapts further rounds of decryption based on the previous round. Meet-in-the-middle attack. A meet-in-the-middle attack encrypts on one side, decrypts on the other side, and meets in the middle. The most common attack is against double DES, which.

Chosen-ciphertext attack: | A |chosen-ciphertext attack| (|CCA|) is an |attack model| for |cryptanalysis| in whi... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled Chosen-ciphertext attacks. Classic McEliece uses a transformation designed to convert a deterministic perfectly correct one-way PKE scheme into a perfectly correct KEM that resists chosen-ciphertext attacks. The following papers study the necessity and sufficiency of this transformation: Nina Bindel, Mike Hamburg, Kathrin Hövelmanns, Andreas Hülsing, Edoardo Persichetti. Tighter proofs of. New Paradigms for Constructing Symmetric Encryption Schemes Secure Against Chosen-Ciphertext Attack AnandDesai DepartmentofComputerScience&Engineering Security against chosen-ciphertext attacks (CCA) The experiment is defined for any private-key encryption scheme ⇧ =(Gen,Enc,Dec), any adversary A,andanyvaluen for the security parameter: The CCA indistinguishability experiment PrivKcca A, ⇧(n): 1. Akeyk is generated by running Gen(1n). 2. The adversary A is given 1n and oracle access to Enc k(·)and Dec k(·). It outputs a pair of. Chosen Ciphertext Attacks Against Protocols Based on the RSA Encryption Standard PKCS #1. Share on. Author: Daniel Bleichenbacher. View Profile. Authors Info & Affiliations ; CRYPTO '98: Proceedings of the 18th Annual International Cryptology Conference on Advances in Cryptology August 1998 Pages 1-12. Published: 23 August 1998. 101 citation; 0; Downloads. Metrics. Total Citations 101. Total.

Indistinguishability under chosen ciphertext attack/adaptive chosen ciphertext attack (IND-CCA, IND-CCA2) [edit | edit source] Indistinguishability under non-adaptive and adaptive Chosen Ciphertext Attack (IND-CCA, IND-CCA2) uses a definition similar to that of IND-CPA. However, in addition to the public key (or encryption oracle, in the symmetric case), the adversary is given access to a. A chosen-ciphertext attack (CCA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis in which the cryptanalyst gathers information, at least in part, by choosing a ciphertext and obtaining its decryption under an unknown key. When a cryptosystem is susceptible to chosen-ciphertext attack, implementers must be careful to avoid situations in which an attackers might be able to decrypt chosen ciphertexts (i.e. There are 15 adaptive chosen ciphertext attack-related words in total (not very many, I know), with the top 5 most semantically related being chosen-ciphertext attack, malleability, ciphertext, public-key and charles rackoff. You can get the definition(s) of a word in the list below by tapping the question-mark icon next to it. The words at the top of the list are the ones most associated with. A chosen-ciphertext attack (CCA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis where the cryptanalyst can gather information by obtaining the decryptions of chosen ciphertexts.From these pieces of information the adversary can attempt to recover the hidden secret key used for decryption. For formal definitions of security against chosen-ciphertext attacks, see for example: Michael Luby and Mihir.

Adaptive chosen-ciphertext attack - Wikipedi

Chosen Ciphertext Attack Against RSA: Scenario

  1. David Cash Chosen-Ciphertext Attacks CMSC 28400, Autumn 2019, Lecture 15 University of Chicag
  2. 1 Why 2 What 2.1 Requirements 2.2 Regular Attack 2.3 Adaptive Chosen Ciphertext Attack 3 How A decryption service In this attack, the attacker has access to a decryption service and mounts a successful attack if they are able to get information about a target ciphertext that is provided later..
  3. Rather, our results mean that, if these cryptosystems are exposed to chosen-ciphertext attacks (e.g., as a result of deployment in an inappropriate real-world setting) then quantum attacks are even more devastating than classical ones. View Full-Text. Keywords: quantum chosen-ciphertext security; quantum attacks; key-recovery; learning with errors Show Figures Figure 1. This is an open access.

Chosen-Ciphertext Attack ABSTRACT In a proxy re-encryption (PRE) scheme [4], a proxy, autho-rized by Alice, transforms messages encrypted under Alice's public key into encryptions under Bob's public key without knowing the messages. Proxy re-encryption can be used ap-plications requiring delegation, such as delegated email pro- cessing. However, it is inadequate to handle scenarios where a. In general, the best protection against the chosen-ciphertext attack is to make impossible for an attacker to both 1) insert encrypted pieces of data, especially large amounts of them and 2) review the decrypted versions of the data they inserted. Transmission of the encrypted data over SSL could help to prevent insertion of the data in the stream since it would guard against man-in-the-middle. A Chosen Ciphertext Attack Against NTRU. Der Vortrag findet im Seminarraum 307 des Fachbereichs Informatik, Frankfurt am Main, Robert-Mayer-Straße 11-15 (3. Stock), statt. Abstract. We present a chosen-ciphertext attack against the public key cryptosystem called NTRU. This cryptosystem is based on polynomial algebra. Its security comes from the intersection of the polynomial mixing system. Re: Chosen-ciphertext attack on receiver anonymity, (continued) pgp-stealth (Re: Chosen-ciphertext attack on receiver anonymity) , Adam Back Previous by Date

Chosen ciphertext attack in the context of provable security The security ofAjtai-Dwork, GGH and Regev cryptosystems can be proven under the assumption that u-SVPis hard. In this context, it is important to understand that our CCA does not contradict the potential hardness of u-SVP. Also, our attack does not contradict the security of trapdoor one-way functions implemented by these. We present a chosen-ciphertext attack against the public key cryptosystem called NTRU. This cryptosystem is based on polynomial algebra. Its security comes from the interaction of the polynomial mixing system with the independence of reduction modulo two relatively prime integers p and q.In this paper, we examine the effect of feeding special polynomials built from the public key to the. Chosen ciphertext attack. If you recall, encrypted blocks are XOR'ed with the previous ciphertext block before it is decrypted. Therefore, you can substitute the last byte of the previous ciphertext block as many times as needed until the padding length is valid. Once that happens, you know you successfully guessed the padding length and cracked the last byte. You can also continue to. We present new and efficient key-recovery chosen-ciphertext attacks on NTRUencrypt. Our attacks are somewhat intermediate between chosen-ciphertext attacks on NTRUencrypt previously published at CRYPTO '00 and CRYPTO '03. Namely, the attacks onl Practical attacks. Adaptive-chosen-ciphertext attacks were perhaps considered to be a theoretical concern but not to be manifested in practice until 1998, when Daniel Bleichenbacher of Bell Laboratories (at the time) demonstrated a practical attack against systems using RSA encryption in concert with the PKCS#1 v1 encoding function, including a version of the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL.

Kryptoanalyse - Wikipedi

  1. Chosen-ciphertext. A chosen-ciphertext attack (CCA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis where the cryptanalyst can gather information by obtaining the decryptions of chosen ciphertexts. From these pieces of information the adversary can attempt to recover the hidden secret key used for decryption. The El Gamal cryptosystem is semantically secure under chosen-plaintext attack, but this.
  2. Chosen Ciphertext Attack In a chosen ciphertext attack (CCA), the cryptanalyst can choose different ciphertexts to be decrypted and has access to the decrypted plaintext. This type of attack is generally applicable to attacks against public key cryptosystems. An adaptive chosen ciphertext attack involves the attacker selecting certain ciphertexts to be decrypted, then using the results of.
  3. So, chosen ciphertext attacks are there for a strictly strong then chosen plain text attacks because we give the attacker all the power that it had for a chosen plain text attack. And in addition, give it the ability to carry out chosen-cypher text attacks. The formal definition is as follows. So, as usual, we're going to fix some encryption scheme pi, and some attacker a. And then we can.
  4. This cryptosystem is provably secure (in a strong sense) against chosen plaintext attacks. However, an active attacker can break the system using a chosen ciphertext attack, as has been mathematically proven. By adding redundancies, for example, the repetition of the last 64 bits, the system can be made to produce a single root. This thwarts the chosen-ciphertext attack, since the decoding.
  5. CVE-2017-17427 Adaptive chosen-ciphertext attack vulnerability . Alteon | AppDirector. Security Advisory. Last Updated Last Updated 12/26/2017 Created Date Created Date 12/10/2017 Article Id Article Id SA95. Print. Description . Alteon and AppDirector XL model platforms and AppXcel may be vulnerable to Bleichenbacher cryptographic attacks. A malicious attacker with access to the network traff
  6. ied adaptive chosen-ciphertext attacks. In the new attacks, an adversary is not only allowed to submit to a decryption oracle (valid or invalid) ciphertexts of her choice, but also to emit a \dump query prior to the completion of a decryption operation. The dump query returns interme-diate results that have not been erased in the course of the decryption operation, whereby allowing the.

chosen-ciphertext-attack · GitHub Topics · GitHu

  1. Direct Chosen-Ciphertext Secure Attribute-Based Key Encapsulations without Random Oracles. J. Blömer, G. Liske, 2013 . Abstract. Download. We present a new technique to realize attribute-based encryption (ABE) schemes secure in the standard model against chosen-ciphertext attacks (CCA-secure). Our approach is to extend certain concrete chosen-plaintext secure (CPA-secure) ABE schemes to.
  2. Public-key cryptosystems provably secure against chosen ciphertext attacks. Pages 427-437. Previous Chapter Next Chapter. References {1} W. Alexi, B. Chor, O. Goldreich and C. Schnorr, RSA/Rabin Bits are 1/2 + 1/poly Secure, Siam Journal on Computing, 17(2) (1988), pp. 194-209. Google.
  3. Current Description . On BIG-IP versions 11.6.0-11.6.2 (fixed in 11.6.2 HF1), 12.0.0-12.1.2 HF1 (fixed in 12.1.2 HF2), or 13.0.0-13.0.0 HF2 (fixed in 13.0.0 HF3) a virtual server configured with a Client SSL profile may be vulnerable to an Adaptive Chosen Ciphertext attack (AKA Bleichenbacher attack) against RSA, which when exploited, may result in plaintext recovery of encrypted messages and.
  4. Protecting RSA-based Protocols Against Adaptive Chosen-Ciphertext Attacks . April 25, 2018 1:57 am by P.I.E. Staff. Cryptology. The shortest answer to any question about securely using RSA is: Don't. Because there are much better.
  5. Cryptographic Attacks: A Guide for the Perplexed July 29, 2019 Research by: Ben Herzog Introduction. When some people hear Cryptography, they think of their Wifi password, of the little green lock icon next to the address of their favorite website, and of the difficulty they'd face trying to snoop in other people's email
  6. Traduções em contexto de chosen-ciphertext en inglês-português da Reverso Context : Rather, this model is important for its use in proofs of security against chosen-ciphertext attacks
  7. SPA-Based Adaptive Chosen-Ciphertext Attack on RSA Implementation Roman Novak Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, Roman.Novak@ijs.si Abstract. 1We describe an adaptive chosen-ciphertext attack on a smart card implementation of the RSA decryption algorithm in the presence of side-channel information leakage. We studied the information leak- age through power consumption.

Chosen Ciphertext Attack Springer for Research & Developmen

Padding Oracle Attack. An exploit for the Padding Oracle Attack.Tested against ASP.NET, works like a charm. The CBC mode must use PKCS7 for the padding block. This is an implementation of this great article Padding Oracle Attack.Since the article is not very well formated and maybe unclear, I made an explanation in the readme Finden Sie perfekte Stock-Fotos zum Thema Adaptive Chosen Ciphertext Attack sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von Getty Images. Wählen Sie aus erstklassigen Inhalten zum Thema Adaptive Chosen Ciphertext Attack in höchster Qualität The attack could be successful simply by resending the whole thing. How It Works. Consider this real-world example of an attack. A staff member at a company asks for a financial transfer by sending an encrypted message to the company's financial administrator. An attacker eavesdrops on this message, captures it, and is now in a position to resend it. Because it's an authentic message that has.

Chapter 10: Chosen Ciphertext Attacks - The Joy of

  1. The main goal of _____ attack is to obtain unauthorized access to the information. a) Active b) Caesar c) Passive d) Brute force 47. _____ involves trying every possible key until a proper translation of cipher text into plain text is obtained. a) Man in the middle attack b) Chosen Plain text Attack c) Brute Force attack d) None of these 48. Encryption Algorithm is a) Mode of Cryptography b.
  2. (2014) Tight chosen ciphertext attack (CCA)-secure hybrid encryption scheme with full public verifiability. Science China Information Sciences 57:11, 1-14. (2014) Online/Offline Attribute Based Signature. 2014 Ninth International Conference on Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications, 566-571. (2014) A DFA-Based Functional Proxy Re-Encryption Scheme for Secure Public.
  3. Special example of the chosen ciphertext attack model, where we choose a ciphertext, except rather than obtaining the corresponding plaintext, we obtain only partial information about the result of the decryption. What is the main idea of the padding oracle attack? We can exploit our access to information about plaintexts based on ciphertexts we choose by playing a yes/no questions game with.
  4. cryptography - Security Against Chosen Ciphertext Attacks
  5. Chosen-Ciphertext Secure Fully Homomorphic Encryption
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